Tuesday, January 28, 2020
Characteristics That Defines The Tropical Rainforest Geography Essay Tropical rainforests are located some distance around the equator and it is one of the earths spectacular wonders. It runs from the tropic of cancer in the northern side of the equator to tropic of Capricorn in the southern part of the equator. Examples of largest known tropical rainforests are found in Brazil (South America), South East Asia, Indonesia (islands near the Indian Ocean), and Democratic Republic of Congo (Africa), and in the Caribbean Islands (Isaac and William, 2007). The largest tropical rainforest is the Amazon rainforest found in the South America and which covers almost two thirds of the United States continent (Malhi and Philips, 2000). Tropical rainforests are defined by their wet climate condition in that it receives 400 to 760 cm of rainfall each year as observed by Morecroft and Keith (pp 298). The climate consists of uninterrupted warm temperatures, high humidity and high rainfalls. Its temperatures range between 25 to 30 Degrees Celsius. This paper will look at the climate that exists in the tropical rainforest and how it affects the growth of a variety of plants in the tropical rainforest. The tropical rainforests made is made up of mostly wet seasons and its climatologic regions lie within the inter-tropical convergence zone. The different types of rainforests are categorized according to the different types of weathers they experience during the year and considering their geographical location (Osterndort et al, 2001). These rainforests includes the monsoon, subtropical and the equatorial type. The rain is experienced almost every day and it lies between 1500 to 2500mm throughout the year. The temperatures vary during the day and night in that during the day, the temperatures range between 30 to 35 degrees Celsius while during the night, the temperature drops to between 19 and 24 degrees Celsius. The type of climate experienced in the tropical rainforest is the equatorial climate and it is characterized by high relative humidity ranging from 77% to 88% and this supports a variety of plant species (Martinelli et al, pp 1107). The tropical rainforest is filled with green vegetables throughout the seasons because of the high rate of rainfall which encourages growth of trees that form canopies which provide shade to other plants and animals living in the area. The atmosphere is always humid, hot and damp due to the canopies that are formed from the trees. The rainforest provides a home to different types of animals and contains many species of plants more than any other type of vegetation areas known. Its climate has no pronounced summer and winter in that the temperature differences between the day and night is observed to be larger than the differences in temperature between summer and winter. The climatic characteristics that defines the tropical rainforest includes average daily temperature of around 27 degrees Celsius, the diurnal temperature change is between 2 and 5 degrees Celsius, the latitude comes under the doldrums low pressure belt all the year round, the rainfall is usually convection al and finally the midday sun is always near the vertical and is overhead twice a year at the equinoxes. The rainforest soils are not usually fertile and this is because the continuous rains wash away the valuable nutrients. The daily weather cycle of the tropical rainforest begins in the morning when the sun shines, heats up the ground making hot and wet air rise in the atmosphere then in the afternoon, the dark clouds brings the rain and thunderstorms in the rainforest and this cycle is repeated continuously each day resulting to an ever wet area (Lewis, 2006). The rainforest is made up four layers namely; the emergent layer, the canopy, the understory and lastly the plants that make up the forest floors. Firstly, the emergent layer consists of a small number of trees that are tall which is referred to as Emergents. The trees grow above the canopy that is has been created by the other trees and reaches to a height of about 54m. These trees are adapted to withstand strong winds and high temperatures from the direct sunlight. It is usually in habited by eagles, monkeys, bats and some butterflies. Secondly, we have the canopy layer which also consists of tall trees of height 45m maximally. The canopy is estimated to contain an almost 50% of different plant species as it has been discovered to be the densest area of biodiversity. It contains epiphytic plants which attach themselves to tree trunks and branches for support. These plants also obtain water and mineral salts from rain and debris that is collected from the other supporting plants in the canopy region (Schneider and Root, pp 710). Thirdly, we have the understory layer which is located in the region between the forest floor and the canopy. These area forms a habitat to snakes, lizards, leopards, boa constrictors, birds and other predators. The region does not receive enough sunlight due to the canopy layer above it in that approximately, the under story receives 5% of total sunlight. It is sometimes referred to as a shrub layer. The last layer is the forest floor which is estimated to receive only 2% of sunlight. The area is characterized by low vegetations because of the relatively low sunlight penetration and only plants that are adapted to low light survive in this region. The rate of decay in plants and animal matter are sped up by the availability of warm and humid conditions. The presence of fungi also speeds up the rate of decay of plants and animals. For many years it was thought that plants in the tropical rainforest were unaffected by the equatorial climate but recent studies indicated that the warm temperatures of tropical rainforest affected the growth of a variety of plants in the region. Lewis (pp 198), stated that the drier conditions in the cloud forest could lead to extinction of some species of plants more especially the orchids. He also monitored tree growth, tropical temperatures and level of carbon dioxide released as a result of high humidity and warm climate. His researches on the matter revealed that the tropical rainforest trees gave off more carbon dioxide than they could use and this resulted to a change in the composition of forest. He also noted that the trees at times grew at a slower rate when the nights were warm. Other studies by Osterndort et al (2001) indicated that some trees grew at a faster rate when the level of carbon dioxide rose while other tree types declined in vitality. Lewis (pp 200), indicated that an increase of carbon dioxide in the tropical rainforest was the main reason for the abrupt shifts in species growth and this, he noted, could lead to serious ecological repercussions in the area experiencing these. The type of climate experienced in the tropical rainforest has made plants growing in the area to adapt themselves so that they can survive the existing conditions such as growth of bushes and canopies. Examples of such plants and how they have adapted themselves includes; lianas which have thick vines that loops around the trunk of trees to reach the top and receive sunlight. Usually their stems come in different shapes and varying length. Their life begins from the forest floor but they grow upwards depending on trees for support until they reach to the top of the tall trees. When they reach at the top, they then spread towards other lianas and trees and wound themselves tightly so that they can be in a position to resists strong winds. Another type of plant in found in the warm environment of tropical rainforest is the fern. The ferns grow in the forest floor as they are well adapted to survive on such a condition. Apart from these, we also have the epiphytes or air plants which perch themselves high on the branches as they become detached from the ground. They begin their life from the canopy from seeds taken there by wind or birds. Some of the tallest trees have buttress roots system which ensures total stability against strong wind and to increase the surface area under which they obtain their nutrients from (Morecroft and Keith, 2009). The diversity in plant species is said to be highest in the tropical rainforest region and it is the responsibility of individuals to ensure that the trees are maintained to allow growth of these trees. Tropical rainforest is reported to maintain a clear environment that is safe for human stay in that it uses up all the carbon dioxide in the air and releases a clean atmosphere. Conclusion Conclusively, it has been observed from the above that the equatorial climate in the tropical rainforest favors the growth of a variety of plant species. It is noted that the tropical rainforest is the largest ecological area that supports and gives a habitat to a diversity if plants and animals. The climatic changes have been observed by Malhi and Philips (2000), to be unchanging and are characterized by high levels of rainfall and high humidity. The climatic condition has created the emergence of different layers which contains a variety of plant species making it one of the earths most spectacular scenery.
Monday, January 20, 2020
Contrasting American and European Horror Movies A common complaint about many film critics is that they tend to fall over themselves in praising anything with subtitles, regardless of quality. For most critics it seems there is a simple equation in analyzing foreign pictures: subtitles=great moviemaking that is not exploitative. When the borderline hardcore French film Romance (1999) was released critics were effusive with their lauding of a film that deals (arguably) with sex in a realistic manner. Even respected guys like Roger Ebert confessed to "not really enjoy[ing] it, and yet I recommend it." Apparently Ebert was not aware of the fact the movie uses filmmaking techniques similar to hardcore porno (the editors cleverly cut away from scenes before the "money shot" can occur) and follows the trajectory of many pornographic films in which a nubile young lass goes from man to man in an effort to find orgasm. The same pattern also applies to foreign horror. Foreign horror is "moody" and "atmospheric" while American horror is "cheap" and "exploitative." What many fail to notice is that both foreign and American horror use many of the same images and devices. In the distinct universe that is the horror film both the higher end pictures (in this case the foreign horror movies) find themselves amongst the so-called exploitative low-end (American horror). Frequently in film analysis it is, as Joan Hawkins writes, "overlooked or repressed...to the degree to which high culture trades on the same images, tropes, and themes which characterize low culture." A fine example of the separation of foreign and American horror can be found in a comparison between Dario Argento's Suspiria and Sean S. Cunningham's Friday the 13th (1980)... ... equally gory and equally exploitative Suspiria is Friday the 13th's emphasis on physical violation. Suspiria also works toward creating fear through physical torment, but it is set in what could be best termed a "dream world," whereas Friday is set in a more realistic (to American audiences at any rate), non-dreamlike setting. Therefore the physical violation in Friday is made more urgent, it hits closer to home, than much of the surreal killing in Argento's piece. In watching Suspiria the audience is permitted to know that the filmmakers know that all they are doing is playing a head game, while in Friday the 13th the audience is stuck in their chairs watching killing after killing occur without benefit of a psychological explanation. There is a lack of what Williams terms "aesthetic distance...viewers feel too directly, too viscerally, manipulated by the text."
Saturday, January 11, 2020
American education have problem with creation and evolution. In education teach students that his idea led to atheism. Faith is rational based on evidence that call them evidence. The evidence of science in no way whatsoever supports Ã¢â¬Å"the God hypothesisÃ¢â¬ . Science has explained many important things. How does Lennox respond?: Atheism undermined science and the evidence of science does indeed support belief in God. He gave example of John MaddoxÃ¢â¬â¢s journal about the Big Bang theory is Ã¢â¬Å"dangerousÃ¢â¬ , because it would give credence to the creation story of Genesis, also he motioned about Ã¢â¬Å"supernatural PlanÃ¢â¬ . 2. Lennox says Ã¢â¬Å"Faith is rational and evidence basedÃ¢â¬ . When Dawkins asks for clarification, what analogy does Lennox use? Lennox said faith is evidence based and gave question Ã¢â¬Å"I presume youÃ¢â¬â¢ve got faith in your wife is there any evidence for that?Ã¢â¬ 3. Ã¢â¬Å"God DelusionÃ¢â¬ thesis: Design is dead because who made the designer? What does Dawkins mean by this?: He agree with cosmologists donÃ¢â¬â¢t have an explanation for the origin of the universe and that biologists have no explanation for the origin of life. Ã¢â¬Å"Biological evolutionÃ¢â¬ make simpler to understand. Also he said who created God? How does Lennox respond?: Lennox responded that question asked about who crated God? Christian did not believe created God. God is eternal and un created but universe created by Him. Lennox said Dawkins argument which is God delusion is wrong and created God is definition of delusion. 4. Ã¢â¬Å"God DelusionÃ¢â¬ thesis: Christianity is Dangerous What does Dawkins mean by this?: Dawkins argued religion is dangerous because it teaches that faith is a virtue. The Faith is blind, irrational, and unjustified. He said all wars, injustice happening, and unrighteous history issues cause from religion. He did not say all religion and believers are wrong, but some people are harmful. Faith is terrible weapon because it justify the performance terrible acts. After Lennox said then Dawkins said the people werenÃ¢â¬â¢t psychopaths, they were well educated, rational people, who thought they were good, the same thing could be said of the Taliban. Once you grant people the premise of their faith, then the terrible things that they do follow. How does Lennox respond?: Lennox said Dawkins only focused on violent situation of religion and targeted Christianity. He asserted unfairly mischaracterized Christianity and classifying it as, in the worst case, an inherently violent religion. Teachings of moderate religion is open invitation of extremism is wrong than what about teaching of moderate atheism. 5. Ã¢â¬Å"God DelusionÃ¢â¬ thesis: You donÃ¢â¬â¢t need God to be moral What does Dawkins mean by this?: He said Ã¢â¬Å"no one needs God in order to be goodÃ¢â¬ . People do not need Bible when they choose or pick, they need something else. Moral had nothing to do read bible. He taught each society and generation the standards of right and wrong. How does Lennox respond?: Atheists have no rational basis to discuss morality at all. We can be good and find moral in society, but cannot find foundation concept being good with God. There is no God means the foundation of moral is removed. 6. Ã¢â¬Å"God DelusionÃ¢â¬ thesis: Christian claims about Jesus are not true What does Dawkins mean by this?: If the world is hideous world, It gives us something to rise above and we clearly do rise above it. Dawkins sees that the central criterion of ChristÃ¢â¬â¢s teachings was out of the main stream of our modern thinking about equal rights for all. How does Lennox respond?: Lennox said Dawkins is totally wrong attitude through Jesus. He focuses on the historical reliability of the New Testament writings and on the meaning of the golden rule: love your neighbor as yourself (in Leviticus) which Jesus understood the term Ã¢â¬Å"neighborÃ¢â¬ to refer to non-Jews.
Friday, January 3, 2020
Chromosomes are cell components that are composed of DNA and located within the nucleus of our cells. The DNA of a chromosome is so long, that it must be wrapped around proteins called histones and coiled into loops of chromatin in order for them to be able to fit within our cells. The DNA comprising chromosomes consists of thousands of genes that determine everything about an individual. This includes sex determination and inherited traits such as eye color, dimples, and freckles. Discover ten interesting facts about chromosomes. 1) Bacteria Have Circular Chromosomes Unlike the thread-like linear strands of chromosomes found in eukaryotic cells, chromosomes in prokaryotic cells, such as bacteria, typically consist of a single circular chromosome. Since prokaryotic cells do not have a nucleus, this circular chromosome is found in the cell cytoplasm. 2) Chromosome Numbers Vary Among Organisms Organisms have a set number of chromosomes per cell. That number varies across different species and is on average between 10 to 50 total chromosomes per cell. Diploid human cells have a total of 46 chromosomes (44 autosomes, 2 sex chromosomes). A cat has 38, lily 24, gorilla 48, cheetah 38, starfish 36, king crab 208, shrimp 254, mosquito 6, turkey 82, frog 26, and E.coli bacterium 1. In orchids, chromosome numbers vary from 10 to 250 across species. The adders-tongue fern (Ophioglossum reticulatum) has the most number of total chromosomes with 1,260. 3) Chromosomes Determine Whether You are Male or Female Male gametes or sperm cells in humans and other mammals contain one of two types of sex chromosomes: X or Y. Female gametes or eggs, however, contain only the X sex chromosome, so if a sperm cell containing an X chromosome fertilizes, the resulting zygote will be XX, or female. Alternatively, if the sperm cell contains a Y chromosome, than the resulting zygote will be XY, or male. 4) X Chromosomes Are Bigger Than Y Chromosomes Y chromosomes are about one-third the size of X chromosomes. The X chromosome represents about 5% of the total DNA in cells, while the Y chromosome represents about 2% of a cells total DNA. 5) Not All Organisms Have Sex Chromosomes Did you know that not all organisms have sex chromosomes? Organisms such as wasps, bees, and ants do not have sex chromosomes. Sex is therefore determined by fertilization. If an egg becomes fertilized, it will develop into a male. Unfertilized eggs develop into females. This type of asexual reproduction is a form of parthenogenesis. 6) Human Chromosomes Contain Viral DNA Did you know that about 8% of your DNA comes from a virus? According to researchers, this percentage of DNA is derived from viruses known as Borna viruses. These viruses infect the neurons of humans, birds and other mammals, leading to infection of the brain. Borna virus reproduction occurs in the nucleus of infected cells. Viral genes that are replicated in infected cells can become integrated into chromosomes of sex cells. When this occurs, the viral DNA is passed from parent to offspring. It is thought that Borna virus could be responsible for certain psychiatric and neurological illness in humans. 7) Chromosome Telomeres are Linked to Aging and Cancer Telomeres are areas of DNA located at the ends of chromosomes. They are protective caps that stabilize DNA during cell replication. Over time, telomeres wear down and become shortened. When they become too short, the cell can no longer divide. Telomere shortening is linked to the aging process as it can trigger apoptosis or programmed cell death. Telomere shortening is also associated with cancer cell development. 8) Cells Dont Repair Chromosome Damage During Mitosis Cells shut off DNA repair processes during cell division. This is because a dividing cell does not recognize the difference between damaged DNA stands and telomeres. Repairing DNA during mitosis could cause telomere fusion, which may result in cell death or chromosome abnormalities. 9) Males Have Increased X Chromosome Activity Because males have a single X chromosome, it is necessary for cells at times to increase gene activity on the X chromosome. The protein complex MSL helps to up-regulate or increase gene expression on the X chromosome by helping the enzyme RNA polymerase II to transcribe DNA and express more of the X chromosome genes. With the help of the MSL complex, RNA polymerase II is able to travel further along the DNA strand during transcription, thereby causing more genes to be expressed. 10) There Are Two Main Types of Chromosome Mutations Chromosome mutations sometimes occur and can be categorized into two main types: mutations that cause structural changes and mutations that cause changes in chromosome numbers. Chromosome breakage and duplications can cause several types of chromosome structural changes including gene deletions (loss of genes), gene duplications (extra genes), and gene inversions (broken chromosome segment is reversed and inserted back into the chromosome). Mutations can also cause an individual to have an abnormal number of chromosomes. This type of mutation occurs during meiosis and causes cells to have either too many or not enough chromosomes. Down syndrome or Trisomy 21 results from the presence of an additional chromosome on autosomal chromosome 21. Sources: Chromosome. UXL Encyclopedia of Science. 2002. Encyclopedia.com. 16 Dec. 2015.Chromosome Numbers For Living Organisms. Alchemipedia. Accessed 16 Dec. 2015.X chromosome Genetics Home Reference. Reviewed January 2012. Y chromosome Genetics Home Reference. Reviewed January 2010.